The harm of acid rain

At present, human beings are facing ten major environmental problems: water crisis, land desertification, destruction of the ozone layer, greenhouse effect, acid rain ravaged, forest decline, soil erosion, species extinction, garbage disaster, and toxic chemical pollution. Among them, raging acid rain is a global disaster that crosses national borders.
Acid rain refers to atmospheric precipitation such as rain, freezing rain, snow, hail, and dew with a pH value of less than 5-6. A lot of environmental monitoring data show that due to the increase of acidic substances in the atmosphere, the cloud water over most parts of the earth is becoming acidic. If it is not controlled, the area of ​​acid rain will continue to expand, and the harm to humans will increase day by day. It has been confirmed that sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide in the atmosphere are the main substances that form acid rain. Among the acid rain components measured in the United States, sulfuric acid accounts for 60%, nitric acid accounts for 32%, hydrochloric acid accounts for 6%, and the rest is carbonic acid and a small amount of organic acids. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide in the atmosphere mainly come from the combustion of coal and petroleum. They form various acids that are dissolved in rainwater under the action of oxidants in the air. According to statistics, about 100 million tons of sulfur dioxide and 50 million tons of nitrogen dioxide are emitted into the atmosphere each year. Therefore, acid rain is mainly caused by human production activities and life.
At present, three major acid rain zones have formed in the world. my country covers parts of Sichuan, Guizhou, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi, Zhejiang, Jiangsu and Qingdao. The acid rain area with an area of ​​more than 2 million square kilometers is one of the world's three major acid rain areas. The rapid expansion of acid rain areas in my country and the high rate of acidification of precipitation are rare in the world. The other two acid rain regions in the world are centered on Germany, France, Britain and other countries, spreading to most of Europe’s Nordic acid rain regions and North American acid rain regions including the United States and Canada. The total area of ​​these two acid rain areas is about 10 million square kilometers, and the pH value of precipitation is less than 0.5, and some are even less than 0.4.
Acid rain has brought serious impact and damage to the earth's ecological environment and human society and economy. Studies have shown that acid rain has brought serious harm to the soil, water bodies, forests, buildings, historical sites and other cultural landscapes, not only causing major economic losses, but also endangering human survival and development. Acid rain acidifies the soil and reduces fertility. Toxic substances are more harmful to crop roots, killing root hairs, leading to stunted growth or death. Acid rain also kills plankton in the water, reduces fish food sources, and destroys aquatic ecosystems; acid rain pollutes rivers, lakes and groundwater, directly or indirectly harming human health; acid rain’s harm to forests should not be ignored. Acid rain washes the surface of plants. Damage plants directly or indirectly through the soil. Promote the decline of the forest. Acid rain has a strong corrosive effect on metal, stone, cement, wood and other building materials, and therefore can cause serious damage to wires, railroad tracks, bridges, and houses. In the acid rain area, the damage caused by acid rain is everywhere and shocking. For example, among the more than 90,000 lakes in Sweden, more than 20,000 have been harmed by acid rain and more than 4,000 have become fish-free lakes. Many lakes in the United States and Canada became stagnant water, and fish, plankton, even water plants and algae were wiped out. The acid rain area of ​​North America has found that large tracts of forest have died of acid rain. More than 7 million hectares of forests in Germany, France, Sweden, Denmark and other countries are declining, and more than 100,000 hectares of forests in my country’s Sichuan and Guangxi provinces are also declining. Many ancient buildings and stone sculptures in the world were severely damaged by acid rain, such as the Leshan Giant Buddha in my country and the Parliament Building in Canada. Recently, it was discovered that the stone lions on the Lugou Bridge in Beijing, the nearby stone tablets, and the King Kong Pagoda of the Five Pagoda Temple were severely damaged by acid rain.
Acid rain is caused by air pollution, and air pollution is a global problem that transcends national borders. Therefore, acid rain is a disaster involving all countries in the world and requires the concerted efforts of all countries in the world to manage together.

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Oct. 05, 2020