Thunder lightning

Thunder and lightning is a majestic and somewhat daunting discharge phenomenon accompanied by lightning and thunder. Thunder and lightning generally occur in cumulonimbus clouds with strong convection, so they are often accompanied by strong gusts and heavy rain, and sometimes hail and tornadoes. The top of cumulonimbus clouds is generally high, up to 20 kilometers, and ice crystals are often found in the upper part of the clouds. The attachment of ice crystals, the breaking of water droplets, and air convection, etc., cause charges to be generated in the cloud. The distribution of charges in the cloud is more complicated, but in general, the upper part of the cloud is dominated by positive charges and the lower part is dominated by negative charges. Therefore, a potential difference is formed between the upper and lower parts of the cloud. When the potential difference reaches a certain level, a discharge will occur, which is our common lightning phenomenon. Lightning has an average current of 30,000 amps and a maximum current of 300,000 amps. Lightning voltage is very high, about 100 million to 1 billion volts. A moderate intensity thunderstorm can reach 10 million watts, which is equivalent to the output of a small nuclear power plant. During the discharge process, due to the sudden increase in temperature in the flash channel, the volume of air expands sharply, resulting in a shock wave, resulting in a strong thunder. When a charged thunder cloud approaches a protrusion on the ground, a fierce discharge occurs between them. There will be strong flashes and roar of explosions at lightning discharge sites. This is the thunder and lightning that people see and hear.

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Feb. 10, 2020