Knowledge Q&A on Tsunami Avoidance

The Indian Ocean tsunami that occurred in December 2004 has swallowed the lives of more than 230,000 people and made humans feel the terror of the tsunami again. In fact, as long as you master the necessary escape knowledge, you can still retreat from the tsunami disaster.
(1) How did the tsunami form? Why did it cause such a huge harm?
The tsunami is caused by the uplift and subsidence of the sea floor caused by the earthquake. The seabed was suddenly deformed, causing a large surging of the sea from the seabed to the sea surface, forming a tsunami that hit the coastal areas.
Affected by typhoons and low air pressure, huge waves may rise on the sea surface. Although they are sometimes as high as several meters, the wave amplitude is limited, ranging from a few meters to several hundred meters, so the amount of sea water hitting the shore is also limited. The tsunami is different. Although the tsunami is only a few centimeters to a few meters high on the distant sea surface, due to the large area of ​​the sea surface bulge, sometimes the width of the tsunami reaches hundreds of kilometers. This huge "water block" produces destructive power. Very huge, seriously endangering the buildings and human lives on the shore. According to investigations, the Indian Ocean tsunami pushed a 50-ton ship from the sea to a distance of 1.2 kilometers along the coast of Thailand. From the relevant data, the tsunami is 2 meters high, and wooden houses will be destroyed instantly; the tsunami is more than 20 meters high, and the reinforced concrete buildings are also difficult to withstand.
One of the characteristics of a tsunami is its high speed. The deeper the sea where the earthquake occurs, the faster the tsunami speed. The deeper the sea, the more water is surging due to the fluctuation of the seabed, and the faster it moves on the sea surface after a tsunami is formed. If the water depth of the place where the earthquake occurs is 5,000 meters, the tsunami and jet plane speed can reach 800 kilometers per hour, and move to a place with a water depth of 10 meters, the speed will slow down to 40 kilometers per hour. As the front waves decelerate and the back waves push over and overlap, the waves rise when the tsunami reaches the shore. If the seabed terrain along the coast is V-shaped, the waves raised by the tsunami will be higher.
It is not noticed when moving in the distant sea, approaching the land at a rapid speed, and when it reaches the coast, a huge wall of water suddenly forms. This is a tsunami. When people find it, it is too late to escape. Therefore, once an earthquake occurs, you must leave immediately Coast, to a safe place high up.
(2) How to escape when the tsunami comes?
Tsunami is related to submarine earthquakes, which can cause huge waves as high as 30 meters and cause huge damage in coastal areas.
If you feel a strong earthquake or long-term shaking, you need to leave the coast immediately and quickly evacuate to a safe place such as a high ground.
If you receive a tsunami warning, leave the coast immediately if you don't feel the vibration, and quickly evacuate to a safe place such as high ground. Obtain information via radio or television, and stay away from the coast until the tsunami warning is lifted. Not all earthquakes cause tsunamis, but any kind of earthquake can cause tsunamis. When you feel the earth trembling, you must seize the time to get away from the seashore as soon as possible and climb up high. Don't watch the tsunami-if you get too close to the waves, you will not be able to escape when the danger comes.
(3) Is there an international early warning mechanism for tsunami prevention?
An international tsunami warning system has been established worldwide. The system was launched in 1965. Prior to this, a magnitude 9.2 earthquake occurred in the sea area of ​​Alaska in 1964, and a huge tsunami caused by the earthquake hit most of Alaska. After the tsunami, the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration started this research. Later, some North American, Asian, and South American countries in the Pacific Earthquake Belt, some island countries in the Pacific, Australia, New Zealand, France and Russia all joined.
According to reports, the international tsunami early warning system generally aggregates all the various earthquake information from the earthquake monitoring network of participating countries, and then analyzes it through a computer, and designs it into a computer simulation to roughly determine where a tsunami will form, its scale and destructiveness How big.
After the basic data is formed, the system will quickly communicate relevant warnings to the relevant member states. Once a tsunami is formed, several hydrological monitoring stations of the system distributed on the ocean will update the tsunami information in time.

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Nov. 09, 2020